Black Necked Spitting Cobra
Black Necked Spitting Cobra is a spitting cobra found through the most of Africa Except the desert area and rain forests of Africa. The Black Necked Spitting Cobra is a dangerous snake that can project the venom from their fangs to a long distance with great accuracy.
The Black Necked Spitting Cobra is a member of genus Naja and Elapidae family.The Scientific name of the Black Necked Spitting Cobra is Naja nigricollis.
The Black Necked Spitting Cobra has characteristic black neck with orange or pink transverse bands on the neck.
BODY FEATURES, LENGTH, COLORS
The Black Necked Spitting Cobra is medium sized venomous snake and grow up to 1.2 to 2.2 m in length. The Black Necked Spitting Cobra has large venomous glands on the either side of the head and the this bulging gives distinctive look to the head.
The color of the body varies greatly as per the inhabiting areas. The color of the dorsal surface may be black, pale grey, yellow brown, olive brown,reddish brown or black and white stripped. Some of the snakes have black or grey dorsal surface with yellow or red abdominal surface.Black band is present vertically on the neck and orange or pink colored transverse bands on the throat.
The scales are smooth and glossy. The dorsal surface has 21 to 23 scales.There are 182 to 197 scales on ventral side and 54 to 66 sub caudal scales.
|Length||1.2 to 2.2 m|
|Diet||small rodents like rats and mice, birds and eggs of birds, fishes, frogs, lizards and other reptiles.|
|Colors||black, pale grey, yellow brown, olive brown,reddish brown or black and white stripped|
| dorsal surface has 21 to 23 scales
182 to 197 scales on ventral side
54 to 66 sub caudal scales
The Black Necked Spitting Cobra inhabits in wider range in almost all the parts of Africa except desert and rain forests in Africa.The snakes are found in Eastern, Western, Central and some of the Southern Africa.
Black Necked Spitting Cobras are found in forests, moist savanna, dry arid regions, coastal regions and in the agricultural areas.The snakes are also found in semi arid areas and near human localities and commonly confronted by local people.
The Black Necked Spitting Cobras are active on day and night.The snakes live in the various habitats and the diet is also varied.the Black Necked Spitting Cobra feeds on small rodents like rats and mice, birds and eggs of birds, fishes, frogs, lizards and other reptiles. The Black Necked Spitting Cobra can project the venom to the eyes of the prey and provoker.
The wider range of the habitats show the ability of the snakes to adapt different types of the regions and can regulate body temperature, The snakes are diurnal or nocturnal according to the habitat and season.They mostly hide in abandoned burrows and holes of the rodents to protect themselves in hot days and from trouble.
The snakes are excellent climbers and found on the trees in search of food.
The Black Necked Spitting Cobras are very aggressive. They become very aggressive on slightest provocation and project the venom directly to the eyes of provoker .
The Black Necked Spitting Cobras are oviparous.The mating occurs in late winter to early summer.The gestation period is about 90 to 100 days. The female snake lays 10 to 15 eggs and the eggs incubate for 60 days. The newly born baby snakes are 20 to 25 cm long.
BITE AND VENOM
The Black Necked Spitting Cobra ‘s venom is a mixture of cytotoxins, neurotoxins and cardio toxins. The neurotoxins are similar to the toxins found in the venom of the other Elapid snakes, but cytotoxins are found in larger volume then the other toxins.
Bite of the Black Necked Spitting Cobra can cause bleeding, pain and tissue necrosis at the bite site. The mortality rate for humans is very low.But if the victim dies after bite it is due to respiratory failure.
The Black Necked Spitting Cobra can eject the venom up to 7 m distance. They project the venom to the eyes. The venom causes irritation and burning sensation in the eyes and over the skin. The venom is known to cause permanent blindness if the venom is not washed off the eyes.
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